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The number of livestock and poultry (animal units) raised in the United States in confined environments has dramatically increased in the last decade, creating a national concern over animal waste handling, treatment, storage, and discharge. Between 1987 and 1992, the United States has witnessed a 3 percent (or 4.5 million) increase in the animal unit population. Not only has the animal unit population grown, but the size of animal feeding operations (AFOs) has increased. Between 1987 and 1992, the AFO industry has consolidated. More animal units are now raised on fewer AFOs, which translates to a larger quantity of animal waste generated over a smaller geographic area (2,3). At the same time, the amount of land available for manure application has been considerably reduced.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2000-01-01

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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