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A groundwater impact study is being conducted for an effluent irrigation project at two golf courses located over the main unconfined potable aquifer on Oahu Hawaii. The study includes field experiments utilizing two grades of reclaimed water at test plots where a series of lysimeters are employed at three different depths to assess leachate water quality. A series of background lysimeters are distributed throughout the two golf courses. The study also includes water balance evaluations and contaminant fate and transport modeling. Data collected for approximately nine months indicate that dissolved solids do not concentrate significantly in leachate water (low irrigation efficiency), and that most of the applied nitrate and phosphorus is taken up by the turfgrass. With the use of worst-case scenarios for infiltration, simulations of dissolved solids transport predict barely detectable increases in the nearest down-gradient potable supply wells after 50 years.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2000-01-01

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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