Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial


Since 1982, Clayton County Water Authority (CWWA) has been operating two forested land application systems (LASs) in Clayton County, Georgia: The Shoal Creek and the E.L. Huie, Jr. LASs. The Shoal Creek LAS spans approximately 360 acres, and was designed to treat 1.1 million gallons per day (mgd). The Huie LAS consists of approximately 4,000, of which about 2,300 acres are irrigated. The Huie LAS site was designed with an application flow rate of 19.5 mgd.

Over the last 18 years, the CWAA LASs have continued to meet State of Georgia surface water and groundwater quality standards; however, increased effluent flows as well as the challenge of maintaining large irrigation areas have prompted the need for LAS improvements. To address this need, CWWA has been investigating the feasibility of implementing natural treatment systems that involve a combination of two natural biologicalbased components: slow rate spray irrigation and constructed wetlands.

This paper discusses the natural treatment systems operated by CCWA to maximize its wastewater treatment capacity in a cost-efficient, environmentally beneficial manner to meet increasing drinking water needs. Included are detailed discussions pertaining to CCWA's LASs and its wastewater treatment facilities; regulatory considerations and guidelines; environmental setting; site investigations; and treatment wetlands.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2000-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more