Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Challenged with the need for expanded treatment facilities in the Lehigh area and also burdened with space limitations due to site constraints at the treatment facility, Florida Water Services (FWS) was seeking the latest and greatest in innovative treatment technology. The submerged membrane technology developed by Zenon Environmental was selected as the process to meet and exceed the challenge presented at the Lehigh wastewater treatment plant. The microfiltration system replaces the solids separation function of both the standard secondary settling basin and tertiary filters within a typical activated sludge process. The new process more than recover the treatment capacity lost by abandoned contact-stabilization tankage and also provides a cost-effective means to expand the facilities to provide additional capacity in the future.

The results of a nine (9) month sampling program concludes that the effluent or permeate from the micro-filtration process has CBOD5 and total suspended solids concentrations much lower than normal secondary treatment processes with filtration. The laboratory analyses of the microfiltration permeate consistently result in CBOD5 concentrations below the 2 mg/L detection limits and consistently below the 0.20 mg/L detection limits for total suspended solids. The fecal coliform values are consistently less than 15 FCU prior to disinfection. In comparison, normal secondary effluent may have fecal values of over 100,000 FCU and over 100 FCU following normal filtration facilities. The results clearly indicate the successful replacement of normal secondary clarification and tertiary filtration for the solids separation function utilizing the submerged membrane technology, which has significant benefits for a treatment application producing reclaimed water.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2000

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more