If you are experiencing problems downloading PDF or HTML fulltext, our helpdesk recommend clearing your browser cache and trying again. If you need help in clearing your cache, please click here . Still need help? Email help@ingentaconnect.com


$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Buy Article:


As the need to retrofit secondary treatment plants for biological nutrient removal (BNR) has become widespread, process variations such as step-feed BNR have been developed to adapt existing treatment facilities to meet effluent requirements. Since there are relatively few full-scale installations of step-feed BNR, the process and retrofit design concepts are still under development. Although step-feed BNR has a relatively small footprint for a suspended growth process, it also is more complex than plug-flow or complete-mix regimes, and presents unique challenges to the designer. This paper discusses major design components including primary effluent flow splitting, chemical feed, dissolved oxygen carryover, nitrate recycle, and foam control; illustrates their impact on performance through process modeling examples; and shows how they are being resolved in New York, NY; Cumberland, MD; and North River, VA.

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/193864700784544334

Publication date: January 1, 2000

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites



Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more