Skip to main content


The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.

or click here to sign up for a free trial


For the past five years, coinciding with the competitive threat from contract operators, numerous papers and articles have been presented on reengineering and optimization efforts during their early stages. Unlike those papers, this one takes a look-three years later- at two different plants that took two different approaches towards improvement. One of the plants examined, a 60 million gallon per day (mgd) plant in the Southwest went from 80 full time equivalent employees (FTEs) to 38 FTEs through reengineering. The other plant, an 18 mgd plant in the mid-Atlantic region went from 44 FTEs to 31 FTEs, through optimization. Both plants had multiple unions and the improvements occurred with labor cooperation. The paths taken at the two plants were different and produced different results in terms of FTE reduction. There were a surprising number of similarities in the qualitative results. Both efforts were deemed to have succeeded. The paper identifies which approach is preferable based on starting conditions and expectations.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2000

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Partial Open Access Content
Partial Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more