Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$9.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

The use of indicator organisms by water utilities and environmental regulators to assure the microbial safety of drinking water is a widely applied and accepted practice. With improvements in epidemiological methods and medical diagnostics, it has become apparent that traditional coliform indicators are not always appropriate indicators of all human pathogens, especially some recently recognized non-bacterial pathogens. Drinking water contaminated with human waste typically is associated with high risk of infection by human pathogens. Thus, source-specific indicators to identify the contamination source(s) would be very useful. New or alternative source-specific indicators must be established to be highly associated with the human or animal group for which they are specific. These indicators must also be analyzed using methods easily applicable to utility laboratories and boards of sanitation. This research was oriented to determine the potential use of three alternative source-specific indicator organisms (sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, Rhodococcus coprophilus, and serogroups of F+coliphages) to differentiate human vs. grazing animal, and human vs. non-human microbial inputs in a drinking water watershed. Samples were collected monthly over 13 months from three locations within a drinking water watershed. The incidence of detecting the three alternative indicators corresponded to elevated levels of coliforms and predicted impacts from land use information. The data in this study indicated that the three proposed indicators might be good tools that could be used to discriminate between sources of microbial inputs to drinking water sources.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Data/Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2000-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more