WERF's Research Program on the Use of the Biotic Ligand Model for Establishing Water Quality Criteria for Metals
Permitting of discharges of metals has historically been problematic for NPDES permit holders. At a series of expert workshops coordinated by U.S. EPA, use of the biotic ligand model (BLM), formerly known as the “gill model,” was recommended as an alternative method to regulate metals. Members of the Science Advisory Board felt that the BLM required further refinement in the form of actual field validation before the BLM could be incorporated into the copper and silver criteria documents. For this reason, WERF is embarking on a Targeted Collaborative Research program to raise funds to conduct the necessary research program. Initially, research for copper will be undertaken to enhance the understanding of the aquatic chemistry of copper and its toxic effects on organisms. This research will provide substantial benefits to NPDES permit holders.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2000-01-01
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