Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$9.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

It has been known for some time now that the presence of DNAPL in an aquifer constitutes a continuing source of groundwater contamination that presents obstacles to remediation and site closure. Several technologies are now becoming available in the marketplace to remediate DNAPL. These include air sparging, in-situ chemical oxidation, surfactant/cosolvent flushing, and in-situ thermal treatment. In this paper, each of these technologies is described, discussed and compared to containment remedies, both in general, and in a case history presented for one site. Uncertainties and limitations associated with the innovative technologies make an assessment of their effectiveness in achieving regulatory standards difficult. When considered with the high cost of implementation and the possible need for additional treatment to address residual contamination, it may be difficult to justify implementing a DNAPL removal or treatment technology. Containment remedies require ongoing operation and maintenance for very long periods of time, but they do limit costs and generally satisfy the regulatory needs of mitigating environmental impacts and reducing future risk. Other site factors such as property use and regulatory closure requirements can impact the remedy selection, but in general it appears that the current innovative technologies may not offer a lower cost way of reducing the liabilities and risks associated with a site.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2000-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more