Skip to main content


The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.

or click here to sign up for a free trial


It has been known for some time now that the presence of DNAPL in an aquifer constitutes a continuing source of groundwater contamination that presents obstacles to remediation and site closure. Several technologies are now becoming available in the marketplace to remediate DNAPL. These include air sparging, in-situ chemical oxidation, surfactant/cosolvent flushing, and in-situ thermal treatment. In this paper, each of these technologies is described, discussed and compared to containment remedies, both in general, and in a case history presented for one site. Uncertainties and limitations associated with the innovative technologies make an assessment of their effectiveness in achieving regulatory standards difficult. When considered with the high cost of implementation and the possible need for additional treatment to address residual contamination, it may be difficult to justify implementing a DNAPL removal or treatment technology. Containment remedies require ongoing operation and maintenance for very long periods of time, but they do limit costs and generally satisfy the regulatory needs of mitigating environmental impacts and reducing future risk. Other site factors such as property use and regulatory closure requirements can impact the remedy selection, but in general it appears that the current innovative technologies may not offer a lower cost way of reducing the liabilities and risks associated with a site.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2000

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more