Skip to main content

Manure Pathogens: Real Issues and Real Risks

The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.

or click here to sign up for a free trial


The pathogens of the major domestic animals, i.e., chickens, cattle, and pigs, posing a threat to people through manure are considered. The discussion is limited to those pathogens that are a threat from environmental contamination, such as through watershed contamination or vegetable contamination, rather than from those pathogens that are considered to cause disease mainly though food-borne outbreaks of disease. The paper lists the major signs and disease associated with the 3 major pathogens in chickens and the six major pathogens associated with pigs and cattle. Mention is also made of the role of the domestic cat in the potential contamination of watershed with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii. Finally, attention is called to the need to carefully identify the pathogens of true importance, to determine how these pathogens pose a threat to people, and to develop a better understanding of what is required to cause their routine destruction by disinfection.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2000

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more