Manure Pathogens: Real Issues and Real Risks
Authors: Bowman, Dwight D.; Burnham, Jeffrey C.
Source: Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, Disinfection 2000 , pp. 694-702(9)
Publisher: Water Environment Federation
Abstract:The pathogens of the major domestic animals, i.e., chickens, cattle, and pigs, posing a threat to people through manure are considered. The discussion is limited to those pathogens that are a threat from environmental contamination, such as through watershed contamination or vegetable contamination, rather than from those pathogens that are considered to cause disease mainly though food-borne outbreaks of disease. The paper lists the major signs and disease associated with the 3 major pathogens in chickens and the six major pathogens associated with pigs and cattle. Mention is also made of the role of the domestic cat in the potential contamination of watershed with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii. Finally, attention is called to the need to carefully identify the pathogens of true importance, to determine how these pathogens pose a threat to people, and to develop a better understanding of what is required to cause their routine destruction by disinfection.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2000
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