Weather and Climate Services in Europe and Central Asia is part of the World Bank Working Paper series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the Bank's ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion.Worldwide, the accuracy and value of weather and climate services
are rising, bringing great economic benefits. However, many national hydrometeorological services in Europe and Central Asia are in decline. As a result, these potential gains are often missed. Much more could be done to mitigate weather disasters, support the productivity ofsmallholding and
commercial agriculture, conserve energy, and promote safe aviation and transport by road and rail. Although capacity deficiencies are serious, they could be remedied significantly by relatively modest-but sustained-investments.Chapter 1 describes the worldwide growth in weather forecasting
skill, presents principal issues and questions in Europe and Central Asia (ECA), and sets out the study'sorganization. Chapter 2 assesses the needs of the key sectoral clients of the national hydrometeorological services in the region. Chapter 3 addresses ECA's natural weather and climate
issues: vulnerability to transboundary weather events, extreme weather, variable weather, and projected climate change. Chapter 4 presents the forecasting workflow, and then presents key regional and national capacity gaps. Chapter 5 discusses ways to estimate the economic benefit of existing
and upgraded forecasting capacity.This study is part of an ongoing Regional Working Paper Series sponsored by the Chief Economist's Office in the Europe and Central Asia Region of the World Bank.