Authors: Onursal, Bekir; Gautam, Surhid P.
Publication date: September 1997
Latin America and the Caribbean is the most urbanized region in the developing world with a rapidly growing motor vehicle fleet. The number of urban areas with populations exceeding 1 million was 43 in 1994 and is expected to increase to 52 in 2010. Airborne pollutant levels in many urban areas far exceed the national, regional, or local standards and World Health Organization guidelines. The main source of air pollution in these urban areas is motor vehicles, especially those which are old and poorly maintained. Ozone, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide are pollutants of greatest concern. This report analyzes the pollutants emitted by motor vehicles, their effects, and measures targeted to vehicles, fuels, and transport management to control them. Case studies for seven urban areas Mexico City, Santiago, Sao Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, and Santafe de Bogota are presented to illustrate how these measures have been used in the region and how they can be strengthened.
Publisher: World Bank