This volume extends the literature on civil service pay and employment by building on first generation studies that identified problems and by introducing a second generation of work that offers prescriptions based on better information, deeper analysis, and more extensive experience with reform implementation. This volume is divided in two parts. Part one inaugurates the second generation of studies of civil service pay and employment in low-income economies by futher developing the methodology for assessing pay and employment problems, and documenting the nature and extent of prevailing difficulties. Part two, examines what has been learned to date from the implementation of civil service pay and employment reform programs. Topics covered by this study are: 1) government pay and employment policies and economic performance; 2) diagnosis with limited information - government pay and employment reform in Somalia; 3) public expenditure and ciivil service reform in Tanzania; 4) recognizing labor market constraints: government donor competition for manpower in Mozambique; 5) preparing for civil service pay and employment reform; 6) experience with civil service pay and employment reform - an overview; 7) implementing civil service pay and employment reform in Africa - the experiences of Ghana, Gambia, and Guinea; 8) dealing with redundancies in government employment in Ghana; and 9) consequences of permanent layoff from the civil service - results from a survey of retrenched workers in Ghana. The book concludes by raising the question: are deeper reforms desirable and feasible? It offers a range of explanations for the lack of political reaction to retrenchments and other reform measures; and concludes that deeper reforms may be less politically costly than thus far has been assumed.