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A lens formula for an electrostatic lens accompaning pre- and after electric fields

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The virtual object and image are introduced in order to apply the usual lens formula to an electrostatic lense accompaning pre- and/or electric fields. In case of the uniform electric field, their positions are simply expressed as a function of the accelerating or decelerating potential ratio.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Professor Emeritus of Osaka University, 1-14-9 Takakura-chou, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, 534-0011, Japan

Publication date: 2004-03-01

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