Congenital toxoplasmosis in humans is due to the infection of the foetus by Toxoplasma gondii (a protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution) through the placenta as a result of maternal infection. The clinical lesions and the rate of infection are dependent on the prevalence of the
disease and on the prevention protocols for pregnant women in different countries. The seriousness of the foetal infection also depends on the date of infection during pregnancy. The goals of the prevention protocols are to avoid maternal contamination, to allow early detection of the infection, if
any in the pregnant woman, to prevent transmission to the foetus, and to treat the foetal and child infection in order to prevent clinical lesions and future potential ocular and neurological damage.