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Gynecology, along with dermatology and ophthalmology, sees the most common use of lasers, in this particular case the CO2 laser. Ablative and excisional treatment for benign and premalignant HPV-associated diseases of the lower genital tract, utilizing the CO2 laser in conjunction with both colposcope and scanning device, can be considered established. Based on randomized clinical trials, CO2 laser treatment is at least as effective as its main treatment alternatives, cryotherapy, electrocautery/fulguration, scalpel excision, and LLETZ (large loop excision of the transformation zone). In association with laparoscopy, laser treatment of endometriosis and fallopian tube surgery to improve tubal infertility can be considered established on clinical ground, but it is not clearly superior to other surgical techniques. Despite limited experience with the ELITTTM (endometrial laser intrauterine thermotherapy) procedure to treat menorrhagia, results of GyneLaseTM (830 nm wavelength diode laser system) therapy are promising and further clinical evaluation is warranted. In Switzerland, laser assisted transcervical tubal sterilization and photodynamic therapy are areas of gynecologic laser applications in development.