A large school of blue runner is attacking scad along reef margin. Note the response of prey is to retreat to undercut edge of the reef and reduce nearest neighbor distances when reacting to the predators. Prey schools expand in volume when the perceived threat is reduced but the reactions are dynamic as attacks occur from different parts of predator school over short time periods. Video at Anchor Ledge off the southeast US (see Fig. 1 in text) on 25 July, 2008, during dives preliminary to the present study.
Publication date: January 1, 2013