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Although it is generally recognized that management strategies should consider life-history variation, little is known about how various reproductive strategies affect stock dynamics. Protogynous (female-to-male) sex change is a relatively common life history pattern in fishes for which
standard assessment methods do not exist. We developed a stock-assessment model for a commercially and recreationally exploited sex-changing species [California sheephead, Semicossyphus pulcher (Ayres, 1854)] to determine how ignoring or including sex change affects the assessment of
the stock. First, we demonstrated that ignoring sex change leads to an overestimate of spawning biomass and very different conclusions regarding the effect of exploitation on the spawning potential ratio (SPR). Furthermore, we found that the stock assessment is highly uncertain (current SPR
estimates range from 0.08 to 0.6) because we do not know how male depletion affects reproduction or what determines individual and population variation in the size of sex change. Our results demonstrate that, although incorporating sex change into stock-assessment models is important, assessment
of protogynous stocks also requires knowledge of the effect of male depletion on spawning potential and the factors that determine sex change.
The Bulletin of Marine Science is dedicated to the dissemination of high quality research from the world's oceans. All aspects of marine science are treated by the Bulletin of Marine Science, including papers in marine biology, biological oceanography, fisheries, marine affairs, applied marine physics, marine geology and geophysics, marine and atmospheric chemistry, and meteorology and physical oceanography.