Taxonomy of three western Atlantic marine species of the genus Eugerres was assessed on the basis of examination of type series, and specimens representing all nominal species over their geographical distribution. Two specimens from type series (MNHN 0000-9447, 95 mm SL, and
MNHN 0000-9452, 97 mm SL) of Eugerres plumieri (Cuvier) were found to be identical to the holotype (USNM 121721, 75 mm SL) of Eugerres awlae Schultz; so E. awlae is redescribed as a valid gerreid species. Likewise, the dry syntypes (MNHN A-5530, 249 mm SL, and MNHN A-5485,
140 mm SL) of E. plumieri were found to correspond to this species and are herein designated as lectotype and paralectotype, respectively. In the same way, the dry syntype (MNHN A-5510, 167 mm SL) of Eugerres brasilianus (Cuvier) is designated herein as lectotype, and other syntypes
examined (MNHN A-5510, 94 mm SL, and MNHN 0000-0917, 160 mm SL) designated as paralectotypes. Anal formulae and the number of gill rakers on the lower limb of the first brachial arch were useful to discriminate E. brasilianus (A. III, 7; Gr. 9–11, mode 10) from E. awlae
(A. III, 8; Gr. 14–17, mode 16) and E. plumieri (A. III, 8; Gr. 13–17, mode 14). Multivariate analysis supports recognition of three western Atlantic marine species. Canonical variate analysis based on 21 box truss characters classified specimens into three distinct groups
(P < 0.0001; 100% correct classification). Distances between the anterior margin of the isthmus and the dorsal extreme of the premaxilla, between the bases of the last dorsal ray and the first anal spine, and between the base of the last dorsal ray and the last anal ray were the most useful
characters for group discrimination. Diagnosis and redescriptions are given for all taxa, along with a key for identification.
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