The present study is the first revision of the western Atlantic peppermint shrimp complex Lysmata wurdemanni (Gibbes). Lysmata wurdemanni, originally described from Florida and South Carolina, is redescribed. Gibbes' types of L. wurdemanni are considered as lost,
therefore, a neotype is selected from specimens collected near Key West, Florida. Lysmata rathbunae Chace is rediagnosed; the locality of this species is restricted to Florida and Yucatán; Chace's "variety" of L. rathbunae is separated from L. rathbunae and assigned
to a new species. In total, four new species are recognized: Lysmata ankeri n. sp., Lysmata boggessi n. sp., Lysmata pederseni, n. sp. (corresponding to Chace's "variety" of L. rathbunae), and Lysmata bahia n. sp.; all four previously were mistaken for L.
wurdemanni and/or L. rathbunae. Classical morphological and morphometrical analyses (Discriminant Function Analysis), in conjunction with examination of life color patterns and interbreeding experiments, were used to corroborate the separation of these cryptic species. Each species
may be most easily recognized by the unique color pattern. Lysmata pederseni, n. sp. also differs ecologically in being associated with tube sponges. Lysmata rathbunae appears to be a deep-water species, while the other five species are found mostly in shallow waters.
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