Orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus Collett, 1889) is a deepwater (500–1500m) demersal species with an almost global distribution. Its exploitation is most developed in New Zealand waters, where it was first caught commercially (in 1979), and where catches peaked at
57,000 t in 1989 but are now about 15,000 t. Most fisheries in these waters have now passed the "fishdown" phase and catch quotas have been set at levels estimated to be sustainable. However, how sustainable orange roughy fisheries can be is still an open question. Three factors that inhibit
sustainability are the species' low productivity, ease of capture, and high value. Measures that would help to enhance sustainability include better information about recruitment (particularly the location and abundance of pre-recruits) and, in New Zealand, longer-term management decision
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