Soviet/Russian studies on squids in the Antarctic Ocean began in the mid-1960s, when the specially built RV Academic Knipovich started the search for new fishery resources in the Scotia Sea. Then, in the 1970–80s expeditions to the Antarctic Ocean were also carried out by other
vessels. Unique material on large deep-water Antarctic squids was obtained due to the study of the feeding of sperm whales and Antarctic tooth-fish carried out during the Soviet whale fishery (1965–1979) on board the factory-ship Sovietskaya Ukraina. The data obtained provide new information
on the taxonomic composition of the Antarctic teuthofauna as well as on geographical and vertical distribution patterns of Antarctic squids and on the feeding, reproductive strategy and other characters of their ecology. The place of the Antarctic squids in the ecosystem of Antarctic pelagic
province is discussed.
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