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The world's coral reefs show rapid decline as a result of environmental change. Coral reef communities and organisms are stressed, potentially mortally, by (1) rising temperature, (2) rising atmospheric/surface ocean CO2 levels, (3) rising human populations, and (4) local aspects of climate change other than temperature. Further increase in all of these stressors is certain; the future rates and magnitudes of items 1–3 can be estimated with confidence to be substantially greater than changes in the recent past.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: September 1, 2001

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  • The Bulletin of Marine Science is dedicated to the dissemination of high quality research from the world's oceans. All aspects of marine science are treated by the Bulletin of Marine Science, including papers in marine biology, biological oceanography, fisheries, marine affairs, applied marine physics, marine geology and geophysics, marine and atmospheric chemistry, and meteorology and physical oceanography.
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