Three species of the genus Scolelepis (Polychaeta, Spionidae) are reported from intertidal beaches in Madagascar. A new species, Scolelepis (Scolelepis) vazaha n. sp., is described from Cap Est (type locality) and Fort Dauphin. This species is unique among
spionids in possessing at least one large, curved hook in each notopodium of setiger 4. Males may additionally have similar hooks on setiger 5 or on setigers 5 and 6. On median setigers males also possess peculiar notopodial swellings, some of which contain a geniculate, penicillate seta of
a type previously unknown for the family. S. (S.) williami (de Silva, 1961), formerly known only from the original description of two specimens from Sri Lanka, was found on five beaches along the southeast coast of Madagascar. This poorly known species is redescribed and
compared to the closely related S. (S.) laciniata Eibye-Jacobsen, 1997, described from the west coast of Thailand. S. (S.) lefebvrei (Gravier, 1905), previously reported from the west coast of Madagascar, was also found on six sandy beaches along the
northeast and southeast coasts. Earlier descriptions are supplemented by information on variation in numerical characters. Scanning electron photographs and details on palp morphology are provided for all three species.
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