Tedania brasiliensis n. sp. is described from widely disjunct localities along the Brazilian coast, distributed from ca 00°30′to ca 24°00′S, and from 3 to 54 m in depth. The species is distinguished from its closest relative in the tropical Western Atlantic,
T. ignis (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1864), by the possession of strongyles as the sole choanosomal megascleres, pinkish-red live-color, and notorious anti-yeast properties. No dermatitis is known yet from contact with the new species. Other records of the genus from the Brazilian
coast are reviewed, and citations of T. anhelans (Lieberkuhn, 1859) and T. vanhoeffeni Hentschel, 1914, are all transferred to T. ignis. We tentatively assign the record of T. murdochi Topsent, 1904, to T. mucosa Thiele, 1905, but suggest the retention of
T. biraphidora (Boury-Esnault, 1973) as a valid species, distinct from T. patagonica Ridley and Dendy, 1886, in contrast to suggestions made in recent literature.
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