Survival and growth of the American lobster Homarus americanus fed formulated feeds
Abstract:There may be an opportunity to culture American lobsters (Homarus americanus) in Japan using warmed seawater from thermal effluent of power generating stations. Growth parameters for culture lobsters were compared between groups fed two artificial diets (feed A and feed B) or a standard rotational diet. The rotational diet consisted of frozen shrimp, lugworm, and pelleted kuruma prawn feed given on alternate days. The principal protein sources for formulated feed A were squid meal, fish meal, salmon roe meal and prawn meal (in the proportions 43:29:14:14), and for formulated feed B the sources were squid meal, fish meal and shrimp meal (in the proportions 35:29:36). Each diet was given to 14 individually reared juvenile lobsters (13th - 14th stage, wet body weight ca. 10 g), maintained at 18 ± 2° C for 150 d. Survival in all three treatments was high (ca. 80%) and not significantly different. There were no significant differences between lobsters fed feed A or B in molting frequency (mean ± SD: 2.5 ± 0.5 vs. 2.2 ± 0.5); weight gain ration per molt (1.44 ± 0.05 vs. 1.40 ± 0.10); total percent weight gain (150 ± 59% vs. 116 ± 44%); or, feed conversion ratio (2.0 ± 0.6 vs. 3.0 ± 1.1). However, both diets proved inferior to the rotational diet for all of these factors. Lobsters fed the rotational diet had an average of 2.9 ± 0.5 molts, weight gain ration per molt of 1.56 ± 0.06, total percent weight gain of 376 ± 67%, and a feed conversion ratio of 1.4 ± 0.3. Lobsters fed feed B developed a whitish-blue exoskeleton after 4 - 5 wks, probably due to a carotenoid deficiency, so from day 58 onward, feed B was supplemented with carotenoid oil. The original exoskeleton color recovered after three molts. Lobster given feed B also seemed to take longer than those receiving feed A to harden the new exoskeleton after molting. Neither of the formulated feeds is adequate to replace the rotational diet.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: July 1, 1997
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