Two new species of the genus Ophryotrocha were recorded from soft bottoms of about 200-m depth in Kagoshima Bay, southern Japan. Ophryotrocha kagoshimaensis is morphologically very close to a known viviparous species, O. vivipara, in having only six setigers. The
former differs from the latter in brooding two to four embryos or larvae partially extruded from the posterior segments instead of having eight embryos including two larvae within the middle segments. O. wubaolingi sp. n. has branchia-like projections on both dorsal and ventral bases
of parapodia and dorso-ventrally depressed segments. These morphological characters are shared by O. platykephale from Guaymas Basin. The new species, however, has compound falcigers and thus differs from the latter which has compound spinigers.
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