A Policy and Management Assessment of U.S. Artificial Reef Programs
The National Artificial Reef Plan of 1985 suggested that states should play a major role in the development of guidelines for artificial reefs. However, most coastal states have not established clear artificial reef development plans that consider social, economic, environmental and biological factors associated with their artificial reef programs. Using a form of the Delphi technique, 12 artificial reef managers along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic, South-Atlantic and Gulf coasts were interviewed to describe the general status of state artificial reef programs in reference to the issues of administration, budget, siting, promotion and education, evaluation, and future trends and major concerns. The paper typifies and describes generic management problems associated with current programs, and provides recommendations to develop more effective state management systems and policies. Twenty-two recommendations are made for state agencies to consider as they develop or improve artificial reef policies and management plans.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 1994-09-01
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