The evolutionary affinities of the tiny, putatively paedomorphic marine fishes of the genus Schindleria have remained obscure since 1932, when the two currently recognized species were described as larval hemiramphids. Most subsequent classifications relegated schindleriids to
a separate suborder within the Perciformes, usually placing them near the blennioids or ammodytoids. We present evidence from otolith microstructure, egg surface morphology, male reproductive tract and, in particular, various aspects of the osteology, that we believe demonstrates unequivocally
that Schindleria is a member of the suborder Gobioidei. Many of the osteological differences between Schindleria and other gobioids are the result of developmental truncations in the former. Schindleria represents the most extreme example of progenetic developmental truncation
known among fishes.
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