Recent direct observations in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific show that benthic and benthopelagic medusae are more numerous and diverse in the deep sea than previously believed. Some of these medusae are behaviorally and anatomically modified for living at the bottom. Others
are facultative species that also live in midwater. Data obtained using submersibles and a remotely operated vehicle show that there are three abundant medusan genera (Benthocodon, Poralia, and Ptychogastria) and that one of these (Benthocodon) can occur at densities of
up to 80 medusae˙m−2 on or near the bottom.
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