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In contrast to most shallow water bryozoans, which grow attached to vertical or undersurfaces of substrata, the free-living colonies of cupuladriid bryozoans occur on sand bottoms. In this open and well-illuminated habitat the colonies, raised like tiny domed islands above the sand
grains, are subjected to intense overgrowth, particularly by algae. Cupuladriids cope with biological fouling by periodically molting their chitinous outer body layer.
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