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A substantial portion of the endemism among barnacles of the southern hemisphere apparently consists of survivors of Tethyan taxa that previously had amphitropical distributions. Examples of amphitropicality result primarily from (1) the development of tropical provincialism concomitant
with warmer central but cooler polar and eastern boundary conditions, and cooling of the decp sea, (2) predative as wel1 as competitive exclusion principles, and (3) the existence of a variety of refugial situations. Not only have a number of taxa become endemic to the southern hemisphere
by virtue of extinction of northern counterparts, but some fully and nearly amphitropical taxa are presently candidates for southern hemisphere endemism.
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