An attempt to identify new collections and update the taxonomy historically applied to the genus Peyssonnelia in North Carolina has resulted in a new species, P. atlantica; two new records for the southeastern United States, P. simulans Web.-van Bosse and P.
stoechas Boud. and Den.; the reassignment of previous records of P. rubra (Grev.) J. Ag. to P. inamoena Pilg., and the reaffirmation of P. conchicola Picc. and Grun. from the state. Three of the taxa, P. atlantica, P. conchicola, and P. inamoena, have
been found fertile and their reproductive anatomy is compared to other members of the genus whose male and female structures have been elucidated.
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