Symbionts of marine copepoda: an overview
Abstract:Symbionts of marine free-living Copepoda are reviewed according to their occurrence on the host's body (including appendages) and internally. No virus, rickettsia, or blue-green alga has been reported from marine Copepoda. Fungi, diatoms, ellobiopsids, ciliates (apostomes and suctorians) and larvae of epicaridean isopods are known as ectosymbionts. Bacteria are known from the body surface and gut. Endosymbionts include dinoflagellates (Blastodinium) and gregarines occurring inside the gut; dinoflagellates (Syndinium and Paradinium), haplosporidians and larvae of digeneans (metacercaria), cestodes (procercus, procercoid and plerocercoid), and nematodes (second and third stage larvae) inhabit the hemocoel. Distribution records indicate that symbionts of copepods are unknown in many regions of the world's oceans; therefore, numerous species of symbionts are yet to be discovered and described. Information on the symbiont's life history and effects to the host is particularly wanting. Knowledge of symbiosis is indispensable to a complete understanding of the host's biology.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: September 1, 1985
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