Skip to main content

Free Content Management of Artificial Reefs Designed to Support Natural Communities

Download Article:
 Download
(PDF 1016.294921875 kb)
 

Abstract:

Pendleton Artificial Reef (PAR) was designed to determine the potential of artificial reefs for mitigating possible losses of kelp-reef habitat caused by operation of coastal power plants. In an attempt to alter natural succession on PAR, massive transplants (hundreds of individuals) of two kelp species (Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica) and juvenile abalone (Hatiotis rufescens; thousands of individuals) have been conducted. Although the PAR site once supported a kelp forest, kelp transplant efforts were not successful, principally because of intensive grazing by two herbivorous fish; halfmoon and opaleye. Similarly, abalone transplantation was not successful, probably because of crab (Cancer spp.) predation and lack of suitable food. In hindsight, these attempts at manipulating succession may have been successful if the densities of grazing fish were artificially reduced, if abalone additions were delayed until more algae were present, and if abalone transplant techniques were used that would minimize predation. Management of artificial reefs should not be limited to only initial planning, but should also consider manipulating succession after placement. Initial planning should consider the physical and chemical environment (past and present), the biological environment (e.g., location with respect to surrounding communities that could influence dispersal and/or attraction of desirable or undesirable organisms), the design, size, and configuration of the artificial habitat relative to local natural habitats, as well as other factors that affect the quality of the subhabitats (e.g., construction material, interstitial volume, rugosity of the substratum). After an artificial reef has been constructed, there are additional factors that will influence community development. These include timing of reef installation (e.g., availability of spores and larvae to colonize the reef) and possible post reef placement management techniques (e.g., transplantation or removal of select species to alter natural succession). Our general conclusions with respect to succession on PAR is that although initial reef planning factors are important, these are subordinate to reef management techniques after installation (e.g., manipulation of prey/predator densities; addition or removal of select species to direct and/or disturb community succession).

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 1985-07-01

More about this publication?
  • The Bulletin of Marine Science is dedicated to the dissemination of high quality research from the world's oceans. All aspects of marine science are treated by the Bulletin of Marine Science, including papers in marine biology, biological oceanography, fisheries, marine affairs, applied marine physics, marine geology and geophysics, marine and atmospheric chemistry, and meteorology and physical oceanography.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Terms & Conditions
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free ContentFree content
  • Partial Free ContentPartial Free content
  • New ContentNew content
  • Open Access ContentOpen access content
  • Partial Open Access ContentPartial Open access content
  • Subscribed ContentSubscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed ContentPartial Subscribed content
  • Free Trial ContentFree trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more