A general account of the Recent coral barnacles of the subfamily Ceratoconchinae (Pyrgomatidae) and their coral hosts in the western Atlantic is furnished. Based on extensive collecting of corals in shallow-water environments along the Brazilian tropical coastline, only two species
of the somewhat problematical genus Ceratoconcha were recognized: C. floridanum (Pilsbry) and C. domingensis (Moulins), distinguished mainly by the height/width ratio of their scuta and by the number of external radial ribs of their shell. C. quarta (Kolosváry)
is considered a junior synonym of C. floridanum. Both species, recorded from Brazil for the first time and having their southern boundaries extended to the Abrolhos coral region, State of Bahia (18°S), are redescribed. Several new host corals are indicated for these species. Particular
attention is paid to the special growth adaptations and host specificity.
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