The species of squid referred to as Loligo brasiliensis Blainville, 1823 by Castellanos and Cazzaniga (1979) is shown to be Loligo sanpaulensis (Brakoniecki, 1984). The name Loligo brasiliensis is shown to be a nomen dubium. Loligo gahi d'Orbigny, 1835 and
L. sanpaulensis are redescribed and illustrated. Loligo patagonica Smith, 1881 is shown to be a synonym of L. gahi. Loligo ellipsura Hoyle, 1885 is shown to be a nomen dubium. The distribution and identification of Loligo sanpaulensis and L. gahi are
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