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Nine species of thalassinids representing three families (Upogebiidae, Axiidae, and Callianassidae) were collected on the south Texas continental shelf. Six were previously unrecorded from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Species accounts include taxonomic information, variations in
adults, characteristics of juveniles, distribution records, and interspecific affinities. Discussion of three species known from the Texas and Louisiana coasts but not collected in the study were included to encompass all thalassinids known to occur in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. A
multivariate discriminant analysis of habitat variables accompanying thalassinid collections on the south Texas continental shelf provides information distinguishing the habitats of the species from one another. Callianassa acanthochirus, C. biformis and Upogebia affinis
occur primarily in shallow depths (10 to 25 m) in sandy, poorly sorted sediments, Axiopsis oxypleura, C. latispina, C. atlantica, and C. sp. occur in deep water (65 to 134 m) in muddy, well-sorted sediments with distinctions in occurrences associated with sediment
mean grain size. Callianassa marginata was taken from deep stations (65 to 85 m) but only in coarse sediments similar to those associated with the shallow water group. Ctenocheles leviceps was collected at mid-depth (30 to 50 m) in silty sediments.
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