Skip to main content

Free Content Photographic Quantitative Sampling of Hard-Bottom Benthic Communities

Download Article:
(PDF 1157.240234375 kb)


Underwater 35 mm color photography was evaluated as a quantitative sampling technique for hard-bottom benthic community composition. Best results required artificial lighting and a reflex viewing system. Transparencies were best analyzed by random point sampling using a dissecting microscope and acetate overlays. Cover was a valuable community parameter that could be accurately and precisely quantified, computerized, and statistically treated. Photographic quadrat sampling was more practical, rapid, inexpensive, and provided more information than direct observation or hand-collected biomass samples. The accuracy of using cover to estimate biomass or numbers of individuals varied. Photographic sampling did not disturb the organisms present and provided convenient permanent records.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 1979-04-01

More about this publication?
  • The Bulletin of Marine Science is dedicated to the dissemination of high quality research from the world's oceans. All aspects of marine science are treated by the Bulletin of Marine Science, including papers in marine biology, biological oceanography, fisheries, marine affairs, applied marine physics, marine geology and geophysics, marine and atmospheric chemistry, and meteorology and physical oceanography.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Terms & Conditions
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free ContentFree content
  • Partial Free ContentPartial Free content
  • New ContentNew content
  • Open Access ContentOpen access content
  • Partial Open Access ContentPartial Open access content
  • Subscribed ContentSubscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed ContentPartial Subscribed content
  • Free Trial ContentFree trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more