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The topography, macrofauna and flora, salinity, and temperature of a salt marsh habitat of Littorina irrorata are discussed. The dispersion of L. irrorata in relation to salinity, food supply, substrate elevation and tidal exposure, substrate slope, vegetation, and wave
action were studied as were the effects on the snails' movement of light, gravity, light and gravity combined, the air-water interface, desiccation, starvation, temperature, and tide. The behavioral responses found to be of importance in upward movement are positive phototaxis, negative
geotaxis under nonstress conditions, and an augmented negative geotaxis during submergence. Behavioral responses of importance in downward movement are positive geotaxis at high temperatures, and positive geotaxis when wetted with sea water after desiccation.
The Bulletin of Marine Science is dedicated to the dissemination of high quality research from the world's oceans. All aspects of marine science are treated by the Bulletin of Marine Science, including papers in marine biology, biological oceanography, fisheries, marine affairs, applied marine physics, marine geology and geophysics, marine and atmospheric chemistry, and meteorology and physical oceanography.