Counts of gill rakers, vertebrae, and dorsal-, anal-, and pectoral-fin rays of the five common species of the family Engraulidae in southern Florida were analyzed and found to vary little within the species. Pigmentation and proportional characters are described and compared, and a
key to specimens measuring 40 to 70 mm SL is presented. The five species—Anchoa lamprotaenia Hildebrand, Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus), Anchoa nasuta Hildebrand & Carvalho, Anchoa mitchilli (Valenciennes), and Anchoviella perfasciata (Poey)—are
discontinuously distributed in southern Florida and reach great seasonal abundance. The fishes I observed fed in currents at night and formed large schools (composed of a mixture of species) in protected areas to escape predation during the day.
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