Lithopagurus yucatanicus gen. nov., sp. nov., is described from three specimens collected by the R/V John Elliott Pillsbury in the Yucatan Channel. The species, modified for inhabiting holes in rock or rock-like sponge rather than gastropod shells, is similar to those of five
other genera in having 13 pairs of gills, an accessory tooth on the ischium of the third maxilliped, and gonopods in one sex. It differs from them in having a single pair of gonopods on the male abdomen but no unpaired pleopods, while the female abdomen bears only three unpaired pleopods.
The female carries a very few large eggs, the larva passing rapidly through abbreviated development. The larva possesses reduced mouthparts, an unusual telson, lacks the posterolateral carapace spines otherwise typical of the family, and is unique among hermit crab larvae in having well-developed
spines on the lateral margin of the antennal scale.
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