Factors Controlling Marine Invasion into Florida Fresh Waters
Abstract:Survey of the pattern of chlorinity and inland distribution of marine organisms in Florida suggests that Pleistocene sea level changes have been responsible for extensive areas of oligohaline water (100-1000 ppm Cl) and nearly oligohaline water (25-100 ppm Cl) on the peninsula accompanied by extensive invasions of blue crabs and marine fish. Transplantation experiments in nature indicate that sodium chloride in the oligohaline concentration range is important to survival. These experiments and a series of natural experiments support the idea that oligohaline waters and distance from brackish water determine the distribution of blue crabs and other marine forms in fresh water. The range and extent of osmoregulation for the blue crab is shown by blood analyses to account for their ability to make inland invasions. Evidence exists supporting the idea that oligohaline waters of the world are zones of evolutionary adaptive exchange between fresh and salt water. Such waters occur on porous land below 25 ft. elevation, in volcanic areas, and in arid regions with outlets to the sea.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 1953
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