Marine Boring and Fouling in Relation to Velocity of Water Currents
Abstract:Experiments were conducted in order to determine the effects of current velocity upon the intensity of attack of species of Teredo and Limnoria. Observations upon Balanus, Chthamalus and Schizoporella species were also made. A sea-water pump was used to provide continuously increasing water velocities up to 2.2 knots in a tapered wooden box. The apparent limiting velocity for entrance of the borer Teredo pedicellata lay between 1.4 and 1.8 knots. The burrowing of Limnoria was prevented by currents of between 1.5 and 1.9 knots. Attachment of Balanus amphitrite was prevented at 2 knots, B. improvisus at 1.8 knots, B. eburneus at 0.8 knots, Chthamalus fragilis at 1 knot and Schizoporella and Crassostrea sp. at 1.4 knots. The bulk of shipworm attack occurred in the horizontal panels forming the bottom of the box. Limnoria was more evenly distributed. Barnacles and bryozoa were more numerous in the upper parts of the panels, possibly due to heavy silting on the lower panels. Maximum growth of Balanus amphitrite, B. improvisus and Schizoporella sp. was reached at about 0.2 knots, while that of B. eburneus was reached at 0.18 knots.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 1951
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