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Forestry practices may directly kill animals as well as destroy and fragment their habitat. Even without habitat destruction, logging and its associated forest management practices (which include road building, re-forestation, and often increased recreational use) create noise, frighten
animals, and may lead to changes in species composition as well as evolutionary responses to the myriad of anthropogenic impacts. Thus, forestry practices may create conservation problems. Forestry practices may also create welfare problems that may act on different temporal and spatial scales
than the conservation problems. The individuals affected by forestry may have heightened glucocorticoid levels that may lead to a predictable set of deleterious consequences. Individuals may no longer be able to communicate, or they may no longer be attractive to potential mates. Such welfare
problems may generate conservation problems if fitness is reduced. Identifying the set of possible impacts is the first step towards improving welfare and aiding wildlife conservation in managed forests.