Skip to main content

The Three Rs in the pharmaceutical industry: perspectives of scientists and regulators

Buy Article:

$25.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Six drug regulatory reviewers and 11 pharmaceutical industry scientists were interviewed to explore their perspectives on the obstacles and opportunities for greater implementation of the Three Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) in drug research and development. Participants generally supported the current level of animal use in the pharmaceutical industry and viewed in vitro methods as supporting, but not replacing, the use of animals. Obstacles to greater use of the Three Rs cited by participants included the lack of non-animal alternatives; requirements for statistical validity; reluctance by industry and regulators to depart from established patterns of animal use; the priority of commercial objectives ahead of the Three Rs; and concern that less animal testing could jeopardise human safety. Opportunities identified for the Three Rs included the development of better animal models including genetically modified (GM) animals; pursuit of more basic knowledge, notably drug action on gene expression; re-use of animals; greater use of pilot studies; using sufficient numbers of animals per test to avoid repeating inconclusive studies; regular review of animal data in regulatory requirements; and following the regulatory option of combining segments of reproductive toxicology studies into one study. In some areas, greater implementation of the Three Rs seemed well aligned with industry priorities, for example, phenotypic characterisation of GM animals and validation of alternative methods. In other areas, wider use of the Three Rs may require building consensus on areas of disagreement including the usefulness of death as an endpoint; the suitability of re-using animals; and whether GM animals and the use of pilot studies contribute to reduction.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Data/Media
No Metrics

Keywords: ANIMAL WELFARE; DRUG DEVELOPMENT; IN VITRO METHODS; PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY; THREE RS; TOXICOLOGY

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2005-11-01

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more