A review of the scientific literature gives evidence that transferring previously single-caged adult macaques to permanent compatible pair-housing arrangements (isosexual pairs, adult/infant pairs) is associated with less risk of injury and morbidity than transferring them to permanent
group-housing arrangements. Juvenile animals can readily be transferred to permanent group-housing situations without undue risks. Safe pair formation and subsequent pair-housing techniques have been developed for female and male rhesus (Macaca mulatta), stump-tailed (M. arctoides)
and pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina) as well as for female long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis). Pair housing does not jeopardize the animals' physical health but it increases their behavioural health by providing them with an adequate environment to satisfy their need for
social contact and social interaction.