Development of kineto-dynamic quarter-car model for synthesis of a double wishbone suspension
Linear or nonlinear 2-degrees of freedom (DOF) quarter-car models have been widely used to study the conflicting dynamic performances of a vehicle suspension such as ride quality, road holding and rattle space requirements. Such models, however, cannot account for contributions due to suspension kinematics. Considering the proven simplicity and effectiveness of a quarter-car model for such analyses, this article presents the formulation of a comprehensive kineto-dynamic quarter-car model to study the kinematic and dynamic properties of a linkage suspension, and influences of linkage geometry on selected performance measures. An in-plane 2-DOF model was formulated incorporating the kinematics of a double wishbone suspension comprising an upper control arm, a lower control arm and a strut mounted on the lower control arm. The equivalent suspension and damping rates of the suspension model are analytically derived that could be employed in a conventional quarter-car model. The dynamic responses of the proposed model were evaluated under harmonic and bump/pothole excitations, idealised by positive/negative rounded pulse displacement and compared with those of the linear quarter-car model to illustrate the contributions due to suspension kinematics. The kineto-dynamic model revealed considerable variations in the wheel and damping rates, camber and wheel-track. Owing to the asymmetric kinematic behaviour of the suspension system, the dynamic responses of the kineto-dynamic model were observed to be considerably asymmetric about the equilibrium. The proposed kineto-dynamic model was subsequently applied to study the influences of links geometry in an attempt to seek reduced suspension lateral packaging space without compromising the kinematic and dynamic performances.
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