The dynamics of European two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension
The dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with the UIC standard suspension is investigated theoretically and the dynamic behaviour is explained. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included. Different wheel-rail geometries are investigated and the results commented. Bifurcation diagrams are used to describe the eigen-dynamics of the wagons.