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The directional response and roll stability characteristics of a partly filled tractor-semitrailer vehicle, equipped with various cross-section tanks, are investigated as functions of fill volume and steer inputs. The tank-vehicle combination is analytically modeled upon integrating a quasi-static roll plane model of a partly filled tank of generic cross-section with a three-dimensional directional dynamic model of a five-axle tractor-semitrailer vehicle, assuming constant forward speed. The vehicle model is analyzed for different cross-sections of partly filled tanks, including circular, modified-oval and two optimal cross-sections. The directional response characteristics of the vehicle are evaluated to study the influence of partial-fill condition, steering maneuver, and vehicle speed on the roll dynamic performance of the tank cross-section and the vehicle. A comparison of the response characteristics, in terms of variations in cargo c.g. shift and roll mass moment of inertia, roll angle, lateral acceleration and yaw rate of the trailer sprung mass, revealed that the optimal tank geometry yields considerably less variations in the cargo c.g. coordinates and can thus significantly enhance the directional response and roll stability characteristics of partly-filled tank vehicles.